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An International and Collaborative Research Programme

Seminar Session: March 25, 2021: Amr Elshobaki

Contemporary Visions of Historical Deliberative processes in Egypt

March 25, 2021. 15h00-17h00 (Berlin Time). Registration: https://forms.gle/A8AJDvdaQyUiG5qD8

This lecture will analyse the relationship between contemporary debates on deliberative processes in Egypt and perceptions of the various historical layers of constitutional history. This perspective will be the base for reflections on the historicity and nature of processes of political deliberation in Egypt. Amr Elshobaki will then focus on the question of the role of the Egyptian Parliament in relation to the concept and practice of democracy, as well as on matters of deliberation and decision-making following the events of 2011. He will also reflect on such issues through his own experience as a Member of Parliament involved in constitutional reform in Egypt and as a columnist involved in debates on political action.

Amr Elshobaki presently serves as an expert with the Al-Ahram Center for Political and Strategic Studies in Cairo. He holds a Bachelor in political sciences from Cairo University (1984), a Master’s degree from Institut d’études politiques d’Aix-en-Provence (1993) and a PhD in comparative political studies from Université Paris 1-Sorbonne (2001). He was elected in 2012 as a member (Independent) of the Egyptian Parliament and also served as a member of the 2013 Egyptian Constitution Committee. He is since 2006 a columnist for the Egyptian newspaper Almasry Alyom.

Among his publications: إسلاميون وديمقراطيون : إشكاليات بناء تيار إسلامي ديمقراطي [Islamists and Democrats: The problems of building a democratic Islamic movement] Cairo, Al-Ahram Center for Political and Strategic Studies, 2004; The crisis of Egyptian political parties: the experience of the Al-Amal party, Cairo, Al-Ahram Center for Political and Strategic Studies, 2005; The crisis of the Muslims brotherhood, Cairo, Al-Ahram Center for Political and Strategic Studies, 2008; Les frères Musulmans des origines à nos jours, Paris, Khartala, 2009; The Arab Democratic Wave (with Alvaro de Vasconcelos), Paris, ISS, 2011; Crisis of political parties in Egypt Arab Strategic Report Al – Ahram Center for Political and Strategic Studies, 2018; A look on local journalism in the Arab region: Do we begin from here? (ed.), Arab Forum For Alternatives and Swedish Institute Alexandria, 2019.

Next session: April 29, 2021: Hedwig Richter (Universität der Bundeswehr, München) “Historicizing Democracy”

Full 2020-2021 programme of the HISDEMAB seminar

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An International and Collaborative Research Programme

Seminar Session: March 11, 2021:Abdul-Hameed Al-Kayyali

The Question of Power in Classical Islam: Searching for the roots of deliberative processes

In the Islamic tradition, after the death of the prophet Muhammad in 632 C.E., a series of successors called khulafâ’ or caliphs, claimed political authority over the Muslim community. The emergence of the institution of the Caliphate during this formative period of Islam (sadr al-Islâm) saw the convergence of elements of various origins, the interaction of which had a strong influence on the redefinition of questions of power, legitimacy and deliberation. This lecture, on the basis of a reading of a series of manuscripts and treaties, by al-Tabari (839-923 C.E), al-Balathuri (d. in 892 C.E.), al-Masoudi (d. in 956 C.E.) and others, will analyse the contrast between narrations of elections and selection processes during the period described as the Rashidun and the consolidation of processes of hereditary nature under the Umayyad and then the Abbasid dynasties. In classical Islam, one of the central moments of discussion of this dimension is that of the writing of al-Ahkam al-Sultaniyyah by Al-Mawardi (972-1058 CE), a manuscript whose influence will also be examined in the lecture as for deliberation processes. In relation with reflections on the articulation of various layers of historicity, the lecture will also discuss the complex ramifications in the contemporary Arab and Muslim worlds of the question of power in Islam as seen from this perspective. It will examine how this historical analysis allows one to reflect on contemporary debates on democracy, forms of legitimation and mobilization in relation with the intellectual and political contexts of post-colonialism, Eurocentrism as well as of essentialist and contextualist views. 

Abdul-Hameed Al-Kayyali is a Researcher in the Department of Medieval and Modern Arabic Studies- DEAMM at Institut Français du Proche-Orient (Ifpo) in Amman. He also serves as Pedagogical Coordinator of Arabic Courses at Ifpo- Amman and Beirut. Al-Kayyali holds a Ph.D. degree from the Institute for Research and Studies on the Arab and Islamic Worlds (IREMAM) at the University of Aix-Marseille in France. Throughout his research career, he focused on the areas of early Islamic history, the cultural history of Islam and the contemporary history and politics of the Middle East. Among his publications: “Ben-Yehuda in his Ottoman Milieu: Jerusalem’s Public Sphere as Reflected in the Hebrew Newspaper Ha-Tsevi, 1884–1915” (with Hassan Ahmad Hassan)(in Ordinary Jerusalem 1840–1940. Opening New Archives, Revisiting a Global City, Edited by Angelos Dalachanis and Vincent Lemire)

Next session: March 25, 2021: Amr Elshobaki (Alahram Center for Political & Strategic studies, Cairo) “Contemporary Visions of Historical Deliberative processes in Egypt”.

Full 2020-2021 programme of the HISDEMAB seminar

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An International and Collaborative Research Programme

Seminar Session: February 18, 2021: Tariq Tell

Debating Representation and Democracy in Jordan in the 1950s: the Rise and Fall of the Jordanian National Movement

The first decade of King Hussein’s (1935-1999) long reign (1952-1999) has long been seen as a time of instability and upheaval, when the Hashemite regime tottered and even Jordan’s survival as an independent state was in the balance. Yet the era is also remembered by left leaning Jordanians as a time of democratic hope and radical possibility, when the foundations of a national developmental state were laid, and a motley coalition of Communists, Pan-Arabists and Free Officers coalesced into a mass based ‘Jordanian National Movement’ (JNM). Radicalized by the social dislocation that followed the Palestinian Nakba and the toll of Israel’s ‘Border Wars,’ the JNM gained control of a radical nationalist street that cajoled the youthful King into abandoning plans to join the Baghdad Pact. Inspired by Nasser’s example, the military wing of the movement then enforced the ‘nationalization’ of the Arab Legion and the expulsion of the British officers who were in operational control of the Jordan’s defense. By foisting freely contested elections on Hussein in 1956, the JNM and the mass movement it orchestrated brought to power the left leaning, if also short lived government of Sulayman al-Nabulsi (October 1956-April 1957). To date the only Jordanian cabinet imposed by parliament rather than the Palace, the Nabulsi government abrogated the Anglo-Jordanian Treaty and brought to an end a colonial relationship with Great Britain that stretched back to the foundation of modern Jordan in 1921.

This talk will re-examine the social origins of JNM, taking leave of accounts that trace its rise to the entry of embittered, activist Palestinians into Jordanian politics after the unification of Trans-Jordan with the ‘West Bank’ in the wake of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. It goes on to propose a different ‘historicity’ of the JNM through engagement with the social history of Jordan as well as the writings of a Jordanian nationalist writer, the late Nahidh Hattar. On this view, the genealogy of the JNM stretches back to the five Jordanian National Congresses that defined Jordan’s national political field in the first decade of Mandatory rule. And despite well-known differences over Jordan’s entry into the Baghdad Pact, it is possible to chart important continuities between significant factions of the JNM and the reformist governments of Hazza‘ al-Majali and Wasfi al-Tall that brought to an end the bitter repression imposed by Hussein with US support after martial law was imposed and the JNM quashed in 1957-1958.

Tariq Tell is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Political Science and Public Administration of the American University of Beirut, where his teaching focuses on Political Development and Social Change as well as on the Historical Political Economy of the Global South. He has degrees from St. Antony’s College (Oxford University), the Institute of Development Studies (University of Sussex) and the London School of Economics and Political Science. He has previously taught Development Studies at the American University in Cairo and the University of Manchester (UK). He has also held research posts at the International Institute for Strategic Studies in London, and in Amman at the Centre d’Etudes et de Recherche sur le Moyen Orient Contemporain (CERMOC) and the Royal Scientific Society.

Tell has co-edited (with E. Rogan) Village, Steppe and State: The Social Origins of Modern Jordan  (I.B. Tauris, 1994) and edited The Resilience of Hashemite Rule: Politics and the State in Jordan before 1967 (Cahier du Cermoc, 2001).  His book, The Social Origins of Middle Eastern Monarchy: The Moral Economy of Hashemite Rule in Jordan was published by Palgrave in 2013.  He is currently working on a Historical Dictionary of Jordan. His research interests also include the political economy of Arab monarchies, the history and politics of the military in Jordan, the historical political ecology of the Bedouin in the Fertile Crescent and the historical relationship between food sovereignty, empire and moral economy in the modern Middle East.

Tell has been active on the Jordanian left since 1978. He was a member of the Jordanian Union of Democratic Youth (Ittihad al-Shabab al-Dimuqrati al-Urduni) and was elected to its governing council in 1991. He was a founding director of al-Mithaq Newspaper from 1996-1998 and served as the spokesman of the Progressive Jordanian Tendency (al-Tayar al-Taqaddumi al-Urduni) in the autumn and winter of 2011. He became a member of the central committee of the Communist Union (Ittihad al-Shuyu‘iyyun) in Amman in 2015.

Next session: March 11, 2021: Abdul-Hameed Al-Kayyali (Institut français du Proche-Orient, Amman) “The question of Power in Medieval Islam: Searching for the Roots of Deliberative processes”

Full 2020-2021 programme of the HISDEMAB seminar

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Seminar Session: January 28, 2021: Hedayat Heikal

“Constitutionalism in the Middle East and the Question of Democracy: In Search of a Time Zero”

January 28, 2021. 15h00-17h00 (Berlin Time). Registration: https://forms.gle/A8AJDvdaQyUiG5qD8

Abstract:

Modern constitutionalism defines itself as the “essence” of democracy.  Without rights protections, and especially judicial enforcement of these protections, democracy is at best incomplete. At worst a sham.  But some constitutional courts have gone further.  Building in part on the entrenched logic of the 1949 German Basic Law, courts in Hungary, India, Colombia, and Turkey among other examples have fashioned doctrines of basic structure or articulated visions of constitutional identity that legislatures are estopped from modifying.  While the concepts of basic structure and constitutional identity are often anchored in certain fundamental rights or a distinctive religious heritage, this talk builds on work from Middle Eastern courts to explore a more expansive definition of constitutional identity.

Hedayat Heikal’s primary research interests are in comparative law, constitutional law and theory, and the rise of the modern administrative state. Dr. Heikal holds both a Doctor of Law (J.D.) magna cum laude and a Doctorate of Juridical Science (S.J.D.) from Harvard Law School where she was a recipient of the Sears Prize and the Addison Brown Writing Prize. Her S.J.D. dissertation focused on the rise and fall of judicial activism on national identity questions in the Middle East. During her studies, she served as a Research Scholar in Law and the inaugural Islamic Law and Civilization Research Fellow at Yale Law School for two academic years, a Distinguished Visiting Professor at the American University in Cairo, as well as a Graduate Program Fellow at Harvard Law School. Between 2009 and 2013, she practiced as a litigation and arbitration attorney at Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton LLP in New York representing clients on a wide array of disputes and regulatory matters. Prior to law school, she graduated from the American University in Cairo summa cum laude with a degree in Electronics Engineering and Mathematics.

Next session: February 18, 2021: Tariq Tell (American University of Beirut) “Debating Representation and Democracy in early-Independent Jordan”

Full 2020-2021 programme of the HISDEMAB seminar

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Habib Kazdaghli: Interview on ExpressFM

Prof. Dr. Habib Kazdaghli, Senior Member of the HISDEMAB research team, gave an interview this week on ExpressFM Tunis on the theme of democracy and pluralism on the sad occasion of the death of Gilbert Naccache (1939-2020). Gilbert Naccache belonged to one of the oldest Tunisian families. He was trained as an Agronomist Engineer. He has been working for the Tunisian Ministry of Agriculture during the first decade of Independence. He was also a writer and a political leftist activist (member of the Tunisian Communist Party until 1959 and then of the leftist political movement Perspectives Tunisiennes). He was emprisoned 11 years under Pdt Habib Bourguiba and remained a dissident under Pdt Ben Ali until the 2011 Revolution. Among his publications: Vers la démocratie ?, Tunis, Mots Passants, 2011; Patchwork : textes politiques et théoriques écrits entre 1978 et 2018, Tunis, Chama, 2019, 328 p.; Qu’as-tu fait de ta jeunesse : itinéraire d’un opposant au régime de Bourguiba, 1954-1979 : suivi de récits de prison, Paris, Cerf, 2009,

Habib Kazdaghli’s Interview:

L’interview : حبيب القزدغلي أستاذ تاريخ معاصر . عودة على مسيرة الكاتب والناشط السياسي اليساري التونسي جيلبار نقاش ، وعودة على مبادرة الاتحاد العام التونسي للشغل والمتمثلة في بعث حوار وطني للخروج من الأزمة نظرا لكونه من بين الموقعيين على هذه المبادرة. #Expresso

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An International and Collaborative Research Programme

Seminar Session: December 10, 2020: François Hartog

“Reflections on Historicity, Time and Historical Research”

December 10, 2020. 15h00-17h00 (Berlin Time). Registration: https://forms.gle/A8AJDvdaQyUiG5qD8

Abstract:

In his presentation, François Hartog will examine five main questions pertaining to the definition and relevance of the notion of historicity. He will first present the notion of historicity itself and discuss its uses in the present context of historical research and intellectual debates. Around a questioning of the uses of the past in contemporary societies, as well as of the complex relationship between past, present and future, he will also illustrate how an attention to regimes of historicity represents a coherent methodological tool for research. In a second part of the presentation, based on the research featured in his new book, Chronos, he will discuss the successive evolutions of Christian conceptions of time and the conditions of emergence of the modern regime of historicity. The third focus of the presentation will be dedicated to theoretical and historiographical questions on the relationship between democracy and historicity. François Hartog will then present reflections on the emergence since the 1970s of new uses of the past in societies and of policies marked by tendencies that he analyses as manifestations of presentism. The final point of the presentation will critically deal with the question of the historicity of democracy beyond the ‘West’ and in general with questionings on the civilisational and cultural values that have been attached to the notion.

François Hartog (Research Professor Emeritus, EHESS, Paris) is a French historian whose early work focused on Ancient Greece and on questions pertaining to historiography. He later oriented his research towards reflections on the notion of temporality. Among his publications: Le Miroir d’Hérodote. Essai sur la représentation de l’autre [The Mirror of Herodotus: The Representation of the Other in the Writing of History](Paris, 1980); Les Usages politiques du passé [Political Uses of the Past](with Jacques Revel, Paris, 2001); Vidal-Naquethistorien en personne, l’homme-mémoire et le moment-mémoire [Vidal-Naquet: historian, memory-man and memory-moment] (Paris, 2007).

On the question of historicity, he published Régimes d’historicité. Présentisme et expériences du temps (Paris, 2002-Augmented edition 2012). An English translation of this book, in which François Hartog proposes reflections on the notion of presentism and on what he analyses as “crucial moments of change in society’s way of relating to the past, the present and future”, was published by Columbia University Press (Regimes of Historicity: Presentism and Experiences of Time (New-York, 2015).

His latest book, Chronos: l’occident aux prises avec le temps [Chronos: How the West is struggling with Time] (Paris, 2020) was published earlier this year.

Next session: January 28, 2021: Hedayat Heikal (Climenko Fellow and Lecturer on Law at Harvard Law School, Cambridge MA) “Constitutionalism in the Middle East and the question of democracy”

Full 2020-2021 programme of the HISDEMAB seminar

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An International and Collaborative Research Programme

Seminar Session: November 26, 2020: Dalenda Larguèche

“Feminine deliberative practices in Tunis: between intimacy, decision-making processes and the opinion”

November 26, 2020. 15h00-17h00 (Berlin Time). Registration: https://forms.gle/A8AJDvdaQyUiG5qD8

Abstract:

The history of the city of Tunis, in its multiple temporalities, like that of other cities, has been above all a history of men, builders with their gestures and their words. The meanders of history, however, also invite us to pay attention to women who, despite their remoteness and invisibilisation, have always been present and active. They left their mark on the history of the city: they were actors of social change and bearers of capacities for opinion, action and mobilisation. In this lecture, which takes the Ottoman period, then the period of colonisation and finally the period of independence as its temporal framework, Dalenda Larguèche proposes a reflection on women’s practices, which in their diversity have participated in the socio-political management of the city and in the fabrication of opinion. The presentation first analyses the context and nature of the civic action of the Muradite princess Aziza Othmana in the 17th century, including an examination of the public dimension of the private act of habus (waqf). Dalenda Larguèche then devotes her analyses to the modes of public speaking of two feminist pioneers, Manoubia Ouartani and Habiba Menchari, in 1924 and 1929 respectively, and to the contribution of their actions to the consolidation of a sphere of expression of female opinion. In this spirit, the social and political action of the first Tunisian women’s association, born in 1936 in a colonial context, is also studied. Finally, the lecture devotes particular attention to the struggle of feminist activists for a radical change in the unequal relations in society during the segmented period of the independent state, as well as to the contestation of this male domination through specific demands and modes of mobilisation against those who support and structure gender inequalities in society. This attention to the longue durée of women’s expression makes it possible, between personal or intimate gestures and deliberative action of a civic and political nature, within the framework of diversified and evolving practices, to finally consider women not only as markers of history, despite the oblivion that has often struck them in the dominant historiography, but also as actors rooted in time with a strong opinion and a powerful capacity for mobilisation.

Dalenda Largueche is Full Professor of History and Gender Studies at the University of Manouba in Tunis, where she founded the Master on Gender studies in 2015. She has been a member of the Scientific Council of the Universities of Tunis and Manouba, and has led the “Women, Gender, History and Memory” research group at the Heritage Laboratory. From October 2011 to October 2018, she has been General Director of the Tunisian Center for Research, Studies, Documentation and Information on Women (CREDIF).

Interested in questions of women and gender in Islamic societies, Prof. Dalenda Largueche published numerous books and scholarly articles on women and gender issues, among which: Marginales en terre d’Islam ([Marginalized Women in Islamic Lands], Tunis 1992), Histoire des femmes du Maghreb: Culture matérielle et Vie quotidienne, ([Women’s History in North Africa: Material Culture and Everyday Life], Tunis 2000), Femmes en Ville dans le monde méditerranéen: Passé et Présent, (Tunis 2005), Monogamie en Islam: le contrat de marriage kairouanais, (Tunis 2011).

She has been a visiting professor at various international universities.  

Militant of women rights, she has actively participated in the structuration of the Tunisian democratic women movement.  Activist in the civil society, she is working tirelessly to ensure democracy, human rights and women’s capacities and voices in post-revolution Tunisia.

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An International and Collaborative Research Programme

2020-2021 HISDEMAB Seminar

The programme of the 2020-2021 HISDEMAB research seminar has just been published:

https://hisdemab.hypotheses.org/seminarprogramme

For registration, please send an email to HISDEMAB@gmail.com

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An International and Collaborative Research Programme

The Historicity of Democracy in the Arab and Muslim Worlds

This academic blog aims at presenting the work of the international research team of the HISDEMAB project of the Leibniz Association. This collaborative project seeks to establish an innovative research network that connects three Leibniz institutes (Leibniz-Zentrum Moderner Orient in Berlin –ZMO-, Leibniz-Institut für Europäische Geschichte in Mainz –IEG– and Leibniz-Zentrum für Zeithistorische Forschung in Potsdam –ZZF-) with two research institutions in the Arab world (Institut français du Proche-Orient –IFPO– in Amman, Jordan and Manouba University in Tunis, Tunisia), while also including guest researchers from the wider Arab and Muslim worlds. The project explores democracy and debates about democracy in the region from a historical perspective. While this topic is highly relevant for contemporary debates, it is often subject to culturalist interpretations that insist on the ontological incompatibility of democracy with political life in the region. The aim of HISDEMAB is to promote global reflections on democracy that go beyond cultural boundaries and discuss entanglements and circulations in a critical way. This network starts with the sources (archival records, chronicles, treaties, memoirs) and investigates diverse forms of deliberation, decision-making, and the mechanisms of representation in local societies, confronting this sphere with the question of democracy and its regimes of historicity. With historical case studies in Tunisia, Jordan, and other countries, from Syria to Algeria, the aim is first to investigate the medieval and Ottoman roots of deliberative processes within professional guilds, confessional communities (Muslim, Jewish, Greek, Armenian), and different institutions (assemblies, petitioning system). The network is also designed to critically relate these roots to the evolution of deliberation and representation in the modern era (late-Ottoman, colonial, and national periods) and to Eurocentric discourses that have developed since the 19th century. While the team based at Leibniz-ZMO explores democracy and discourses on democracy in three phases of the Ottoman Empire (early modern, 19th century, and early 20th century), the Leibniz-ZZF based team investigates the Turkish case in the post-Atatürk era under a historical perspective and the Leibniz-IEG investigates the relationship between democracy and Islam in theoretical discourses and political practices in the 19th and 20th century Arab world and particularly in Egypt. The Hisdemab Team Project at IEG is entitled: Self-Determination under Occupation? The formation of Modern Egypt (1879-1956). Partners at IFPO Amman focus on the case study on the Municipality of Jerusalem during the British Mandate, and on the legacy of Ottoman deliberative institutions and their interpretation in the 20th century as well as on the historicity of democracy in Iraq. Meanwhile, the project partners at Manouba University work on an analysis of democratization processes contemporary Tunisia, along with their (real and imagined) relationship with Europe. Contemporary debates on democracy in the Arab and Muslim worlds are dominated by bitter impressions following the return to authoritarian regimes after the short parenthesis of what mainstream media have labelled the “Arab Spring”. After a few months or years of sometimes naïve enthusiasm, considerations are now focusing again on the alleged incompatibility of democracy with societies of the broader region. This collaborative network moves beyond this dichotomy that responds to culturalist biases in both situations (enthusiasm and bitterness), by investigating the historicity of democracy and deliberative practices for what they are in the societies of the region and by combining reflections on this complex sphere with reflections on democracy in other contexts. Democracy in the Arab, Islamic, and Post-Ottoman worlds is currently mostly studied from the point of view of political science. It is also often the object of culturalist reifications. The aim of this network is therefore to explore this crucial issue by examining the forms of political organization and debate that were inherent to societies of the region, from North Africa to the Middle East and from Anatolia to the Balkans. The intention is also to discuss their impact on various forms of modernity, including late-Ottoman, colonial (British in Egypt, Iraq and Palestine; French in Algeria, Tunisia, Syria and Lebanon; Italian in Libya) and national (in all the independent countries that emerged with decolonization) in challenging the multiple layers of euro-centred, colonial and post-colonial interpretations that have accumulated since the 19th century. It is also to propose a critical examination of this heritage and its historical evolution between accommodation of circulating forms, negation of local existing forms, dilution of local governance schemes and ambiguous resurgences of old forms under the lens of ideologically oriented solutions. The forms of collective deliberation that are relevant in a discussion on inherent, early democratic impulses include various councils and assemblies at various scales, from villages and cities to provinces, deliberative institutions inside the world of guilds and inside confessional communities (Muslim, Jewish, Armenian, Orthodox, Maronite). This discussion, based upon archival research (documents on the functioning of deliberative institutions, documents pertaining to the organization of decision-making processes within guilds or confessional communities, court records) and the interpretation of original manuscripts (chronicles, treaties) focuses on the concept of ḥisba, the Islamic precept regulating commercial and social life, as well as on institutions like the majlis al-shūrā. As far as the impact with modernity is concerned, a focus is put on the debates surrounding the enactment of the first constitutions of the region in the mid-19th century, with the aim of reconnecting their interpretation with local historical roots. This angle of interpretation allows the scholars of the programme to take part in discussions about the relationship of societies of the region and power under an innovative perspective. Reflections also focus on the new definitions of citizenship and nationality that emerged and on their multiple ambiguities. A focus is also put on colonial visions of local societies under the lens of discourses on democracy or on the alleged impossibility thereof, as well as on the period of the independences, with debates on democracy being inserted into a Cold-War context. This effort allows researchers in the programme to propose alternative narratives of the evolution of the relationship between democracy and the Arab/Islamic/Post-Ottoman world, avoiding both neo-traditionalist visions, Islamist visions that tend to present religion as a unique source of social regulation and post-colonial trends that insist on the ontological externality of the notion to the region. In this collaborative programme, convergence in research aims at creating the heuristic space for theoretical and concrete dialogues. This includes theoretical and methodological reflections on the comparative method, entangled history, shared history and global history, but also very concrete practices of scholarly discussion as well as events in which all participants are invited to confront their research fields and questionings to the general theme of the programme.

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